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PageLines- Heatingandairconditioning.pngHeating  Air Conditioning Systems- Most of us take heating and cooling for granted. We expect our heating systems to keep us warm during the winter, and we depend on air-conditioning to keep us cool during the summer. When the house is cold in winter or hot in summer, the natural reaction is to call for professional service. Fortunately, there is an alternative. You can cut service costs drastically and keep your heating and cooling systems working efficiently by doing some maintenance and quick fixes yourself. But first, it’s important to know how the basics of how heating and cooling systems function.

How Heating Air Conditioning Systems Work

All climate-control devices or systems have three basic components: a source of warmed or cooled air, a means of distributing the air to the rooms being heated or cooled, and a control used to regulate the system (e.g., thermostat). The sources of warm air, such as a furnace, and cool air, such as an air conditioner, in a house often use the same distribution and control systems. If your house has central air conditioning, cool air probably flows through the same ducts that heat does and is regulated by the same thermostat. When a heating or cooling system malfunctions, any of these three basic components may be causing the problem. Both heating and air conditioning work on the principle that heat always moves from a warm object to a cooler one, just as water flows from a higher to a lower level. Furnaces and heaters put heat into the air to make your home warmer; air conditioners remove heat to make your home cooler.

When the furnace is turned on, it consumes the fuel that powers it, whether it be gas, oil, or electricity. Heating Air Conditioning Systems as fuel is burned, heat is produced and channeled to the living areas of your home through ducts, pipes, or wires and then is blown out of registers, radiators, or heating panels. Older systems use the heat they produce to heat water, which in turn heats the air in your home. These systems use a boiler to store and heat the water supply, which is then circulated as hot water through pipes embedded in the wall, floor, or ceiling. When an air conditioner is turned on, electrical power is used to cool a gas in a coil to its liquid state. Warm air in your home is cooled by contact with the cooling coil, and this cooled air is channeled to the rooms of your home through ducts and out registers or — in the case of room air conditioners — directly from the unit itself.

Heating Air Conditioning Systems and Types

Boilers

When Hydronic boilers are used in generating heat for residential and industrial purposes. They are the typical power plant for central heating systems fitted to houses and businesses. Furnaces more common in the states. The hydronic boiler operates by way of heating water/fluid to a preset temperature (or sometimes in the case of single pipe systems, until it boils and turns to steam) and circulating that fluid throughout the home typically by way of radiators, baseboard heaters or through the floors. The fluid can be heated by any means…gas, wood, fuel oil, etc., but in built-up areas where piped gas is available, natural gas is currently the most economical and therefore the usual choice. The fluid is in an enclosed system and circulated throughout by means of a pump. The name “boiler” can be a misnomer in that, except for systems using steam radiators, the water in a properly functioning hydronic boiler never actually boils. Some new systems are fitted with condensing boilers for greater efficiency. These Heating Air Conditioning Systems boilers are referred to as condensing boilers because they are designed to extract the heat of vaporization of the flue gas water vapor. As a result of the lower flue gas temperatures, flue gas water vapor condenses to liquid, condensing boilers are becoming more popular, they are still less common than other types of hydronic boilers as they are more expensive.

Radiant Systems

A Radiant system functions by warming the walls, floors, or ceilings of rooms or, more commonly, by warming radiators in the rooms. These objects then warm the air in the room. Some systems use electric heating panels to generate heat, which is radiated into rooms. Like gravity wall heaters, these panels are usually installed in warm climates or where electricity is relatively inexpensive. Radiant systems cannot be used to distribute cool air from an air conditioner. Radiators and convectors, the most common means of radiant heat distribution in older homes, are used with hot water heating systems. These systems may depend on gravity or on a circulator pump to circulate heated water from the boiler to the radiators or convectors. A system that uses a pump, or circulator, is called a hydronic system.

 Hot Air System

forced-air system is one which uses air as its heat transfer medium. These systems rely on ductwork, vents, and plenums as means of air distribution, separate from the actual heating and air conditioning systems. The return plenum carries the air from several large return grills (vents) to a central air handler for re-heating. The supply plenum directs air from the central unit to the rooms which the system is designed to heat. Regardless of type, all air handlers consist of an air filter, blower, heat exchanger/element/coil, and various controls. Like any other kind of central heating system, thermostats are used to control forced air heating systems.

Hot Water System

Now Hydronics is the use of water as the heat-transfer medium in heating and cooling systems. Some of the oldest and most common examples are steam and hot-water radiators. Historically, in large-scale commercial buildings such as high-rise and campus facilities, a hydronic system may include both a chilled and a heated water loop, to provide for both heating-air conditioning systems.

Heat Pump System

heat pump is a device that transfers heat energy from a heat source to a heat sink against a temperature gradient. Heat pumps are designed to move thermal energy opposite the direction of spontaneous heat flow. A heat pump uses some amount of external high-grade energy to accomplish the desired transfer of thermal energy from heat source to heat sink. While compressor-driven air conditioners and freezers are familiar examples of heat pumps, the term “heat pump” is more general and applies to HVAC devices used for space heating or space cooling. When a heat pump is used for heating, it employs the same basic refrigeration-type cycle used by an air conditioner or a refrigerator but in the opposite direction, releasing heat into the conditioned space rather than the surrounding environment. Heating Air Conditioning Systems  In this use, heat pumps generally draw heat from the cooler external air or from the ground.

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